The Palatines arrived in 1709, having been granted a patent by Queen Anne in 1708. In subsequent land divisions in 1715, a central area was set aside to support school and church through land leases in a European Glebe. While no records exist for Newburgh’s life as a parish (1709-1796), the fire brigades were granted a charter from New York State to operate officially in 1797. Three years later, particularly because of the need for administering the water supply, residents were granted a village charter. Essential to the survival of these early communities were the census and the assessment. Newburgh’s growth soon required the organization of citizens into oversight boards.